Pain produced by irritation of the diaphragm is never localized within the diaphragm, but is always referred to some distant portion of the body. When one considers the frequency with which disease occurs in the region of the diaphragm, the importance of a familiarity with the locations of the referred pain from this organ is quite apparent.
ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY OF THE PHRENIC NERVE
The phrenic nerve has its origin from the third, fourth and fifth cervical nerve roots. The largest number of its fibers arise from the fourth cervical root. There has been some doubt and some difference of opinion in regard to the distribution of the phrenic nerve. It is known to have both motor and sensory fibers. Ferguson,1 in 1891, proved experimentally that the phrenic nerve contains sensory fibers, but the extent of its innervation has not been accurately determined. It has, however, been fairly well
ORR TG. IMPORTANCE OF PHRENIC SHOULDER PAIN IN DISEASE INVOLVING THE DIAPHRAGM. JAMA. 1923;80(20):1434–1436. doi:10.1001/jama.1923.02640470012004
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