Carbohydrates, such as the starches, taken in the food, are converted into simple sugars, such as glucose. The glucose or other sugar is absorbed by the intestine and carried to the liver, where much of it is stored as glycogen. The remainder is carried to the muscles and other tissues, where some of it is oxidized and some stored as glycogen. Prior to these changes, glucose in some way becomes altered in chemical structure so as to change it from an inactive into an active form. In diabetes mellitus it is probable that the sugar absorbed from the intestine is no longer properly changed into the active form so that it cannot be stored in the liver as glycogen, or oxidized in the tissues, but circulates in increased quantities in the blood (hyperglycemia) and is excreted in the urine (glycosuria). It therefore becomes lost to the body as a source
INSULIN: ITS ACTION, ITS THERAPEUTIC VALUE IN DIABETES, AND ITS MANUFACTURE. JAMA. 1923;80(25):1847–1851. doi:10.1001/jama.1923.26430520002011
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