In general we have at our disposal two methods for the removal of calculi from the ureter, the open operation and cystoscopic manipulation.
The open operation is definitely indicated for some stubborn stones that do not respond to cystoscopic methods, especially the impacted stones that completely block the ureter, the large stones, the stones that do not move after repeated attacks of colic, and those stones associated with severe uncontrollable infection of the kidney. There are, however, good reasons for avoiding open operation, whenever there is a good chance of ridding the ureter of the stone by a simpler method. Although the operative mortality of ureterolithotomy is now almost nil, the postoperative complications early and late are sufficiently frequent to make it desirable to narrow the indications for open operation as closely as possible. Subsequent ureteritis and periureteritis causing kinks or strictures of the ureter with kidney infection may produce
BEER E, HAHN LJ. USE OF INDWELLING CATHETER TO INDUCE PASSAGE OF URETERAL STONES. JAMA. 1925;84(14):1028–1029. doi:10.1001/jama.1925.02660400016007
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