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Since the earliest times, physicians as well as laymen have been accustomed to rely largely on facial expression as an index to character and to health or disease. Whether consciously or not, we are still influenced in diagnosis and prognosis by the looks of the patient, and there is, without doubt, some fundamental ground of support for the custom. In this book, Dr. Kirchhoff, a psychiatrist of note, has endeavored to correlate the observations of many years of practice with anatomic and physiologic facts, with the purpose of rationalizing and systematizing this method of study. He distinguishes between the physiognomy, or static condition, and the play of the features, or the mimetic activity, of the face, and has reviewed in considerable detail literature and art, both ancient and modern, as well as the results of scientific work and theory. The anatomy and physiology of the facial muscles are well presented;
Der Gesichtsausdruck und seine Bahnen beim Gesunden und Kranken besonders beim Geisteskranken. JAMA. 1923;81(6):498. doi:10.1001/jama.1923.02650060068034
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