Da Silva,1 working under the direction of Bozzolo, made the first special study of the influence of the application of the ice-bag to the precordial region. He concluded that in the normal individual the systolic arterial blood pressure would rise from 30 to 40 mm. of mercury after an hour's application of the ice-bag, and that this rise in pressure was explained by an increase in vascular and cardiac tone. Corresponding to the increase of arterial pressure, the cardiac rate fell an average of 8 beats a minute. Intracardiac thermic determinations on dogs showed a decrease in temperature of 1 to 5 degrees C. Da Silva concluded that these effects resulted from the direct action on the cardiac fibers.
Winternitz2 made practically the same observations as da Silva, but included a somewhat more exhaustive study of the therapeutic indications of such hydrotherapy. Hirschfelder 3 has briefly summarized their
GILMAN RL, WHITE CJ. INFLUENCE OF THE APPLICATION OF THE ICE-BAG TO THE PRECORDIUM: I. PRELIMINARY STUDY: THE NORMAL PERSON. JAMA. 1923;81(9):748–749. doi:10.1001/jama.1923.02650090046014
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