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September 15, 1923


JAMA. 1923;81(11):873-875. doi:10.1001/jama.1923.02650110003002

In the light of today it would be supererogation on my part to recapitulate the end-results of the operative treatment of cancer of the breast as reported by many clinics and individual operators throughout the world. The results in the main are about the same, and the technic employed in general varies so little that claims of superiority in end-results on that score are hardly worthy of serious consideration.

A clearly operable cancer of the breast which recurs locally indicates that either the technic was incomplete or else that its lymphatic extension had passed beyond the limits of the field of operation, however well the operation was performed. Again, in an instance of metastatic recurrence, if a pathologic study of the specimen removed fails to detect cancer elements beyond the border of the parts removed, then metastasis had already taken place before the operation was performed.

The most important thing