The teaching of Hirschberg concerning the retinal manifestations of diabetes early impressed me with the peculiar affection in the central region of the retina, consisting of small, bright, white spots with fine hemorrhages, the retinitis centralis punctata diabetica. Soon after the publication of Hirschberg's1 paper in 1890, I2 reported a case of this kind, and it has been my habit, in practice, to look on these findings as suggestive of diabetes. This is, indeed, the view generally accepted, and almost every publication since 1890 dealing with this subject quotes Hirschberg's description. This is the course that has also been followed by Leber3 in his work on "Diseases of the Retina," and by Dimmer.4
The probable dependence of this form of retinitis, as well as others, on primary vascular changes led Wilbrand and Saenger5 to discard the name retinitis and substitute for it "angiopathy of the
FRIEDENWALD H. DIABETIC RETINITIS. JAMA. 1925;85(6):428–434. doi:10.1001/jama.1925.02670060030010
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