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The application of fluoroscopy at the operating table is now conceded to be an essential prerequisite to successful surgery for renal lithiasis.
Braasch, in 1919, was the first to stress this principle, which has since been modified by various surgeons to meet their particular needs. By preference, some continue to use the roentgen-ray film rather than the fluoroscope. Without considering the virtues and advantages of either method, the suggestion presented here offers an advantage over fluoroscopy, which entails the presence of a radiologist. The roentgen-ray apparatus in use is a modern bedside unit with a 10 ma. Coolidge radiator tube, using a 5 ma. current.
The accompanying illustrations show the principles of its application. As soon as renal exposure has been obtained, a nurse slips the Patterson head operating fluoroscope over the surgeon's head, a sterile cover having been slipped over the nose of the fluoroscope. The time required for
Hager BH. AN IMPROVED APPLICATION OF THE USE OF RENAL FLUOROSCOPY AT THE OPERATING TABLE. JAMA. 1925;85(16):1222. doi:10.1001/jama.1925.26710160004010c
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