Incrusted cystitis is a chronic inflammatory condition of the urinary bladder manifested clinically by symptoms of dysuria, urgency and frequency, and the passage of gritty material or sand. In certain cases the urine is strongly alkaline, the degree depending somewhat on the severity and chronicity of the process. Usually the urine contains a large amount of blood and mucus, and sometimes pus. The marked discrepancy between the number of red blood corpuscles and pus cells in the urine in this form of cystitis has often been contrasted with the ratio in ordinary cystitis. Because of the nature of the gritty material and the alkaline condition of the urine, this particular type of cystitis has been referred to as chronic alkaline phosphatic cystitis. On cystoscopic examination the bladder presents crusted material which is hard, is firmly embedded in the mucous membrane, and may be limited, affecting only a small area of
HAGER BH, MAGATH TB. THE ETIOLOGY OF INCRUSTED CYSTITIS WITH ALKALINE URINE. JAMA. 1925;85(18):1352–1355. doi:10.1001/jama.1925.02670180008002
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