Morphin, or morphin in combination with one of the atropin group, is used by most surgeons prior to operation as an adjuvant to general anesthesia. There are some, however, who do not use it, or who administer it with some concern, especially in urologic conditions when kidney function is poor.
Standard textbooks on the physiologic action of drugs give us very little definite information concerning the action of morphin on the kidneys, and a paper1 recently published in The Journal reveals the fact that there is by no means unanimity of opinion among the leading surgeons of the country as to the general utility and safety of this drug in surgical practice.
We may say in the beginning that while the advantages of the drug both before and after operation are obvious, the disadvantages are problematic; and it was with the purpose of determining whether these disadvantages really exist
HAINES WH, MILLIKEN LF. RENAL FUNCTION: THE RESULTS OF EXPERIMENTAL WORK WITH MORPHIN AND ATROPIN. JAMA. 1925;85(24):1853–1855. doi:10.1001/jama.1925.02670240005002
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