Since the advent of radiology, urology has made a remarkable advance toward more accurate diagnosis. In the earliest days of radiology it was considered quite sufficient if the shadow of a stone could be demonstrated; but during the last few years, through accumulated experience, more perfect technic and the introduction of pyelography, the roentgen ray has become a necessary adjunct to the study of urologic conditions. It is an accepted fact that there is a certain percentage of urinary calculi that fail to cast shadows on a roentgen-ray plate. For years a positive roentgenogram has been of value, but we still encounter cases in which a negative result does not always mean absence of urinary calculi. Too often, indeed, has it occurred, after the removal of urinary calculi which had previously been demonstrated by the roentgen ray, that the patient has had a ureteral colic before leaving the hospital and very often
SHEA DE. URINARY CALCULI: CHEMICAL COMPOSITION AND STRUCTURE IN RELATION TO RADIOGRAPHY. JAMA. 1925;85(25):1939–1943. doi:10.1001/jama.1925.02670250013004
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