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More than twenty years ago when Rieder gave the first bismuth meal, it was observed that the stomach was not located horizontally in the epigastrium, but that, in the average person, it hung vertically on the left side of the abdomen, its lower pole reaching to the level of the navel and usually below the navel. This observation was not immediately accepted by clinicians, because it did not seem to agree with the observations made, over a long period of years, by surgeons doing abdominal operations and by pathologists while making necropsies. The unique value and accuracy of roentgen-ray stomach visualization is now universally accepted, however.
The visualization of the gallbladder by the use of the tetra-iodophenolphthalein test, as brought out by Graham and his co-workers, promises to be an equally important milestone for clinical medicine. The oral administration now permits of universal application of this test without danger or
LANGE S. THE GALLBLADDER AS REVEALED BY THE ROENTGEN RAY. JAMA. 1925;85(26):2021–2023. doi:10.1001/jama.1925.02670260019007
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