Clinically, the toxemia that occurs in partial or complete duodenal or upper intestinal obstruction is striking, both because of the severity and because of the peculiar character of the syndrome. This syndrome was first described by Newman,1 in 1861, and soon afterward by Kussmaul.2 Mayo-Robson,3 in 1898, mentioned eleven cases of gastric tetany. Ten of the patients died. Another patient, his own (at first suspected of having strychnin poisoning on account of the convulsions), completely recovered following gastro-enterostomy. Cunningham,4 in 1904, reported a typical case of gastric tetany in which the patient recovered after gastroenterostomy had been performed.
MacCallum 5 and his co-workers were probably the first to show, by direct experimental evidence, that there was a decrease in the plasma chlorids and an increase in the carbon dioxid carrying capacity of the blood in cases of obstruction in the upper intestinal tract. They demonstrated slight
DIXON CF. THE VALUE OF SODIUM CHLORID IN THE TREATMENT OF DUODENAL INTOXICATION. JAMA. 1924;82(19):1498–1502. doi:10.1001/jama.1924.02650450010003
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