The older part of the human brain, like the brain of fish, amphibians and birds, is an automatic machine which acts immediately when stimulated by outside occurrences. Light falls on the eye; the pupils close to exclude it. In the higher levels of this old brain, conscious feelings and emotions are provided in order to reinforce the responses and make them more certain. An insulting enemy appears; anger and attacking movements are produced. This level in which feelings appear is the instinctive brain.
The brain cortex is of recent development. It checks the immediacy of the responses for a time, during which a new process, thinking, occurs, which is unknown in lower animals. This new process is registered in our consciousness and introspectively is labeled "remembering," "reasoning" and "decision" (intellect). Biologically speaking, the cortex is a device by which man profits to the highest degree from his past experiences. When
WOODS AH. SYPHILITIC CEREBRAL ENDARTERITIS IN A HOMOSEXUAL PSYCHOPATHIC PATIENT: A MEDICOLEGAL PROBLEM. JAMA. 1933;100(6):391–394. doi:10.1001/jama.1933.02740060007003
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