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Article
July 3, 1926

IMPORTANCE OF SYMBIOSIS, OR CLOSE ASSOCIATION OF DIFFERENT SPECIES OF ORGANISM: IN THE PRODUCTION OF CERTAIN BIOCHEMICAL PHENOMENA AND IN THE CAUSATION OF CERTAIN DISEASES AND CERTAIN SYMPTOMS OF DISEASE

JAMA. 1926;87(1):15-22. doi:10.1001/jama.1926.02680010015004
Abstract

The subject of symbiosis has, so far, attracted little attention from medical men and bacteriologists. I use the term symbiosis sensu lato to indicate the living together of two organisms in close association, their close association not being detrimental to either of them. Symbiosis sensu stricto means that the association is not only not detrimental, but mutually beneficial. Botanists have been interested in symbiosis for many years. They discovered, for instance, that a large group of plants represent a symbiosis of two different vegetal organisms; they also found that symbiosis plays an important rôle in the nutrition processes of numerous plants and in the germination of certain seeds.

FORMS OF SYMBIOSIS 

Symbiosis Between Two Vegetal Organisms; Composite Plants.  —The best known example is furnished by the lichens. A lichen is a composite plant consisting of a green alga and a fungus which may be grown separately with difficulty. All of

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