There are two main types of vascular disturbances affecting the extremities, which are classifiable on the basis of their functional or organic origin (table 1). The functional or vasomotor disturbances fall in two clinical groups, as the vasomotor mechanism is capable of only two responses, vasoconstriction and vasodilatation. When the vasomotor balance is so adjusted as to fulfil just the local circulatory requirements, the function of the mechanism is normal. When the vasomotor balance of the limb is preponderantly toward the vasoconstrictor side and the blood flow is diminished, the surface temperature is reduced and the limb is frequently pale or cyanotic. The degree of coldness and of pallor or cyanosis of the extremity depends on the amount or degree of vasoconstriction. When vasoconstriction occurs in attacks in the hands or feet with well defined local color changes, subjective symptoms and, frequently, trophic disturbances, the condition is recognized as Raynaud's
BROWN GE. THE TREATMENT OF PERIPHERAL VASCULAR DISTURBANCES OF THE EXTREMITIES. JAMA. 1926;87(6):379–383. doi:10.1001/jama.1926.02680060003002
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