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JAMA Clinical Guidelines Synopsis
August 25, 2015

Prostate Cancer Screening

Author Affiliations
  • 1Section of Urology, Department of Surgery, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois
  • 2Section of General Internal Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of Chicago
  • 3Section of Hematology and Oncology, Department of Medicine, University of Chicago
JAMA. 2015;314(8):825-826. doi:10.1001/jama.2015.8033

Prostate cancer is the most commonly diagnosed noncutaneous malignancy in the United States, affecting 233 000 men annually and the second most common cancer-related cause of death among US men.1 Because local disease is amenable to definitive local therapy and metastatic prostate cancer has a 5-year survival of 20% to 25%, early diagnosis to improve overall mortality is the goal. Prostate-specific antigen was approved in 1994 to screen asymptomatic men for prostate cancer. Together with digital rectal examination (DRE), PSA screening has led to increased prostate cancer detection, and many have argued this has directly contributed to the 40% reduction in prostate cancer–related mortality over the last 2 decades.2 However, widespread PSA screening has also led to a surge in men diagnosed and treated for clinically insignificant disease.2