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October 16, 1926

A Bipolar Theory of Living Processes.

JAMA. 1926;87(16):1325. doi:10.1001/jama.1926.02680160073034

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The author has collected in a single volume the results of researches published from time to time since 1898, together with the interpretations that he places on those results, and a bibliography of collateral material that has been of value to him. The essential conception is that all living processes are electrical phenomena, and, indeed, each cell of the body is itself an electrical cell—a bipolar unit. The nucleus is acid, the cytoplasm is alkali. They are separated by a semipermeable film of low conductivity. There is a difference in electric potential between the nucleus and the cell. Dr. Crile finds changes in oxidation associated with changes in electric tension. "Electricity," he says, "keeps the flame of life burning in the cell, and the flame (oxidation) supplies the electricity, which is the vital force of the animal." The cell is therefore an automatic unit. Dr. Crile has elaborated this fundamental

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