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One may divide the enlargements of the thyroid due to disturbance of function into two groups:
Simple goiter (endemic, epidemic, sporadic).
Adult (Gull's disease).
Exophthalmic goiter: Graves' disease. Hyperthyroidism. Thyrotoxicosis.
There is no essential relationship between the two groups, as is shown by the fact that the lower animals are as susceptible to simple goiter as man, and simple goiter can be readily produced experimentally in both man and animals; while exophthalmic goiter does not occur in the lower animals and it has not been produced experimentally.
Simple goiter is the manifestation of a deficiency disease depending on a relative or absolute deficiency of iodine, while exophthalmic goiter seems to be primarily a disease of the nervous system and more particularly of the visceral nervous system.
Simple goiter includes those enlargements of the thyroid gland in man and animals which were formerly designated endemic, epidemic, sporadic, physiologic,
MARINE D. SIMPLE GOITER AND ITS PREVENTION. JAMA. 1926;87(18):1463–1464. doi:10.1001/jama.1926.02680180035008
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