It is an accepted fact that the reaction of the blood in health is slightly on the alkaline side of neutrality (about pH 7.4, with minimum and maximum limits of variation in disease at pH 6.9 and 9). This constancy of reaction is supported by numerous mechanisms known as the buffer system which prevent extremes of acid or alkali in the interest of health and even the maintenance of life. The acids produced by the metabolic activity of the tissues, and the bases introduced into the blood through the gastro-intestinal tract, are normally excreted, destroyed or converted into neutral substances. The lungs take over the excretion of the volatile acids, while the nonvolatile acids and bases are excreted by the kidneys. Furthermore, through the buffer system of the body fluids, especially by means of the hemoglobin, the bicarbonates and phosphates of the blood, these acids and bases are
JORDAN SM. CALCIUM, CHLORIDE AND CARBON DIOXIDE CONTENT OF VENOUS BLOOD: IN CASES OF GASTRODUODENAL ULCER TREATED WITH ALKALIS. JAMA. 1926;87(23):1906–1909. doi:10.1001/jama.1926.02680230030010
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