There can be little doubt of the importance of making a preoperative diagnosis of horseshoe kidney, since this may simplify surgical technic and perhaps, under certain circumstances, modify somewhat the route of approach. A rather brief review of the literature, however, shows that very few of these cases are recognized before operation, or, at least if they are recognized, not many of them have been recorded in the literature. In a recent publication Eisendrath, Phifer and Culver report a series of cases collected from the literature up to July, 1925, including three of their own cases. Of a total of 133 cases, including their first two, only nineteen, or 14.2 per cent, were diagnosed before operation or necropsy and confirmed. While these figures are apparently low, it would seem that with the modern methods of diagnosis the percentage in which the diagnosis should now be made is, and will be,
KRETSCHMER HL. PREOPERATIVE DIAGNOSIS OF HORSESHOE KIDNEY. JAMA. 1927;88(2):77–81. doi:10.1001/jama.1927.02680280007002
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