Among urologists there is no longer any controversy over stricture of the ureter as a disease entity. Clinical evidence is not lacking, but more experimental data and much necropsy testimony is needed to write convincingly on this subject and to establish the pathology of this newly recognized disorder. Already important contributions have been made by Hunner, 1 Goldstein, 2 Smith 3 and others.
Some confusion has arisen because of the type of instrument used in demonstrating the lesion. The common indirect lens system cystoscope and some of the direct vision ones without lens systems are unsuitable. Hunner did, and still does, his work with the amply calibered open tubes of Kelly, and has no difficulty in manipulating the large wax bulbs and bougies so necessary for diagnosis and treatment; but considerable uncertainty resulted when other men attempted to duplicate Hunner's results, using the ordinary cystoscope with wax bulbs. Imperfect technic
OCKERBLAD NF. STRICTURE OF THE URETER IN MALES: A REPORT OF THIRTY-ONE CASES. JAMA. 1927;88(8):544–548. doi:10.1001/jama.1927.02680340016006
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