Ectopia lentis is a congenital displacement of the crystalline lens of comparatively rare occurrence; it must be distinguished from the acquired dislocations which develop spontaneously or as the result of trauma. Ectopia of the lens is ordinarily bilateral and symmetrical in both eyes. Knapp's1 statement of its occurrence as approximately 1 in 5,000 cases denotes the rarity of the condition. The oldest reference found in the literature pertaining to ectopia is that of von Graefe,2 who, in 1854, described the condition and called particular attention to its hereditary nature. The German and the English schools are amply represented in the early reports, the former by Stellwag von Carion's paper,3 which appeared in 1856, and Sippell's4 book, which was published in 1859; the latter by Dixon's5 report in 1857 and Jeaffreson's6 report in 1871. Although articles have appeared almost yearly since these early dates, they
HORNER WD, MAISLER S. ECTOPIA LENTIS: WITH REPORT OF A CASE OF TOTAL DISLOCATION, DIRECTLY DOWNWARD. JAMA. 1933;101(17):1302–1304. doi:10.1001/jama.1933.02740420022006
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