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November 4, 1933


JAMA. 1933;101(19):1494-1495. doi:10.1001/jama.1933.02740440054023

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Prognathism Among European Rulers  Dr. F. Aguilar recently wrote an article on the frequency of prognathism among European rulers. This author, who founded the National School of Dentistry of Madrid, more recently established a fund for the support of the University City of Madrid. He is also an honorary professor of various universities. His article is illustrated with a large collection of portraits copied from several galleries of paintings of famous personages of old and modern times. Dr. Aguilar states that prognathism is hereditary. In some cases it may coexist with either physical or mental degenerative anomalies but it is not in itself a sign of degeneration, as some anthropologists state. Prognathism among European rulers is not a characteristic of the Hapsburg family but is a stigma which has been inherited through several generations from King Alfonso VIII, who ruled in Castile from 1158 to 1214. In reviewing the literature,

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