Early in the HIV epidemic, patients with AIDS were not always diagnosed as having the disease, in some cases because their opportunistic infections (eg, disseminated histoplasmosis) were not yet recognized as AIDS-defining conditions. Since then, there have been remarkable advances in both the diagnostic capabilities and therapeutic options in the treatment of HIV disease. This progress has resulted in restoration of severely ill patients’ immune systems and previously lethal HIV infection becoming a chronic disease. There has seldom been such successful and rapid progress for a disease with high morbidity and short life expectancy (eg, in the 1980s, >40% of perinatally infected children died before 4 years of age, whereas today, with optimal care, <1% die before 4 years of age1). However, the epidemic is not over, too many people avoid testing and too few engage in care, and prophylaxis and treatment budgets are limited.
Ram Yogev. Antiretroviral Therapy for Nevirapine-Exposed Children With HIV Infection. JAMA. 2015;314(17):1801–1802. doi:10.1001/jama.2015.13763