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March 8, 1941

The Social Relations of Science

JAMA. 1941;116(10):1033. doi:10.1001/jama.1941.02820100127029

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The thesis set forth is that "modern science has been associated with freedom because it arose out of the activities of the craftsman." The great thinkers of Greece made small contributions in the application of science because of the separation of the thinking class from the remainder of society, which was based on slavery. This caused Greek science to lose itself in speculations. The single exception to this was medicine, which produced the first balanced science. "The hippocratean writings contain the first description of scientific method which contains all its elements." But the facts of human physiology are too complicated and difficult subjects of research to prove a good foundation of science. Aristotle, a son of a doctor, made his greatest contributions through the study of biologic material. Alexandrian science was in closer touch with craftsmanship but was still handicapped by widespread slavery. The contributions of Egyptian science were large,

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