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March 29, 1941


Author Affiliations


JAMA. 1941;116(13):1349-1355. doi:10.1001/jama.1941.02820130011004

In the first draft of the last war visual defects led all other causes for rejection and were three times as common as the next in importance.1 Such common defects must receive the first attention of the industrial physician.

Psychologists have found that approximately six times as many perceptions are based on vision as on all the other senses combined. Industrial efficiency, therefore, depends almost directly on visual efficiency. The industrial physician is, in fact, caught between the horns of a dilemma when he considers the prime importance of visual efficiency and the great prevalence of visual defects. This means that he has the task not of weeding out the defectives but of evolving a program of visual efficiency which will increase industrial efficiency. This means that industry must not be disrupted by adherence to arbitrary visual standards but that the efficiency of the individual workman may be increased