Since the introduction of tetraiodophenolphthalein into medicine for purposes of visualizing the gallbladder, attention has frequently been directed by various observers to the toxicity and the hepatic and renal lesions produced by this dye. Graham and Cole1 were able to note toxic effects only when large doses were administered intravenously. However, Ottenberg and Abramson2 have reported the production of extensive degeneration amounting almost to necrosis of the liver lobules following the injection of a 5 per cent solution of the dye in doses of from 0.3 to 0.4 Gm. per kilogram of body weight. Lesions were found in addition in the kidneys and spleen. The urine showed large amounts of the injected dye, albumin, casts, and in some instances hemoglobin. Larger doses killed the animals at once or within fifteen minutes with acute convulsive seizures. They note, however, that the doses required to produce symptoms and lesions in
FRIEDENWALD J, FELDMAN M, KEARNEY FX. FURTHER EXPERIMENTAL STUDIES IN CHOLECYSTOGRAPHY: PATHOLOGIC OBSERVATIONS. JAMA. 1927;89(3):195–196. doi:10.1001/jama.1927.02690030027011
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