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April 26, 1941

Human Nature in the Light of Psychopathology

JAMA. 1941;116(17):1992. doi:10.1001/jama.1941.02820170110031

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This work is a modified and shorter version of the author's point of view previously published in English under the title of The Organism. Goldstein is essentially a psychologist of the gestalt school who has utilized the clinical material of organic brain lesions, especially those produced by war wounds. Like many other investigators, Goldstein finds that abstract behaviors which constitute the highest capacity of the human mind are first affected in brain lesions, especially those of the frontal lobes. Anxiety is a reaction to inner catastrophe and forces the individual to make other use of his existing or remaining capacities. The author rejects the concept of inner drives or forces and correspondingly unconscious dynamic forces and childhood genesis to contemporary conflicts. In refuting psychoanalysis the author quotes Karen Horney, who has long since shown her own misconceptions of dynamic psychology. After the denial of drives, Goldstein is forced to postulate

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