Recently we have observed several cases of dislocation of the atlanto-axial articulation which were not associated with trauma but resulted as a complication of acute infectious diseases.
With the development of the roentgen ray, cases of traumatic dislocation of this joint have been diagnosed more frequently. Several of the cases, which have been described in the literature, had no evidence of injury to the spinal cord, but most of them were associated with fractures. The injury together with its mechanism of production and the roentgenographic appearances have been thoroughly described in the literature.
Many cases of dislocation have been noted which are the result of destructive diseases, such as tuberculosis and syphilis, but we were unable to find any reported cases of simple dislocation without associated trauma or destruction of bone.
The cases included in this report were dislocations at the atlanto-axial articulation which were direct complications of upper respiratory
BERKHEISER EJ, SEIDLER F. NONTRAUMATIC DISLOCATIONS OF THE ATLANTO-AXIAL JOINT. JAMA. 1931;96(7):517–523. doi:10.1001/jama.1931.02720330037010
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