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JAMA Clinical Guidelines Synopsis
February 16, 2016

Screening for Prediabetes and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

Author Affiliations
  • 1University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois
JAMA. 2016;315(7):697-698. doi:10.1001/jama.2015.17545

Abnormal blood glucose and type 2 diabetes are prevalent conditions in the United States; about 115 million adults have prediabetes or diabetes.1 Prediabetes is defined as IFG, IGT, or an increased average blood glucose level indicated by an increased hemoglobin A1c level. The incidence of type 2 diabetes among patients with prediabetes may be as high as 35.5 to 70.4 new diagnoses per 1000 person-years.2 In 2014, type 2 diabetes affected 9.3% of US adults aged 20 years or older, and 36.4% of adults with type 2 diabetes were undiagnosed.1 Because early-stage type 2 diabetes is often asymptomatic, diagnosis can be delayed commonly from 4 to 8 years.3 Abnormal blood glucose and type 2 diabetes can be screened for by well-established tests. Type 2 diabetes significantly increases the risk of several comorbid conditions; eg, kidney failure, nontraumatic lower limb amputations, blindness, heart disease, stroke, peripheral vascular disease, dementia, and depression. Treatments to maintain euglycemia include lifestyle changes, medication therapies, and surgery.