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JAMA Clinical Guidelines Synopsis
March 22/29, 2016

Screening for Gonorrhea, Chlamydia, and Hepatitis B

Author Affiliations
  • 1University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois
JAMA. 2016;315(12):1278-1279. doi:10.1001/jama.2016.0223

The incidence of STIs is increasing, and these infections cause significant health and economic burden.1 The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) reported that an estimated 1.4 million new cases of chlamydia and 350 000 cases of gonorrhea occurred in 2014.2 The highest-risk age group is between 15 and 29 years, but cases are seen at every age. Adding to the burden of the diseases, many infections are undiagnosed and untreated, potentially leading to late-term complications such as pelvic inflammatory disease, neonatal illness, and infertility. The CDC estimates that approximately 24 000 US women develop infertility related to STIs.3 Between 700 000 and 2.2 million people in the United States are infected with hepatitis B.4 Left untreated, 15% to 25% of these people will die of hepatic decompensation or hepatocellular carcinoma. Screening and early diagnosis have the potential to decrease both the complications and transmission of gonorrhea, chlamydia, and hepatitis B.4

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