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August 23, 1941


Author Affiliations

Passed Assistant Surgeon and Research Fellow, Respectively, National Cancer Institute, National Institute of Health, United States Public Health Service BETHESDA, MD.

JAMA. 1941;117(8):588-591. doi:10.1001/jama.1941.02820340010004

The increasing use of radiation in medicine, industry and research demands increased knowledge of radiation effects and protection methods. The authors visited forty-five hospitals of all types, ranging in size from forty-four to over three thousand beds (thirty-two have more than two hundred beds) and studied storage and handling of radium, calibration and shielding of roentgen therapy equipment and technics of use and shielding of roentgenographic and fluoroscopic units.

Ionization chambers ranging in sensitivity from 0.25 roentgen to 100 roentgens full scale were used in making measurements. Estimates of average exposures were calculated from ionization measurements made during typical operations such as preparation of radium applicators and roentgenoscopic and roentgenographic procedures, multiplied by the average daily time spent performing such activities. Adequacy of equipment and practices were judged in most instances on the basis of recommendations for protection which have been published by various writers1 and those in the