In 1878 Claude Bernard1 called attention to the remarkable constancy of body fluids and predicted that the delicate adjustments necessary for the maintainance of internal harmony and economy must be dependent on nervous regulation. Today that prediction promises fulfilment. In spite of the present confused state of knowledge in this new field of study, evidence is accumulating that in the region of the hypothalamus2 there are visceral centers exerting a control over water balance, the metabolism of fats and sugars, vascular adjustments (perhaps even the activities of capillaries and sweat glands), regulation of temperature, and a balanced control of glandular secretions and smooth muscle tonus changes in the internal organs. Evidence is accumulating to indicate that the visceral nervous system, which is the intricate network of neurons by which these activities are affected, regulates and, in turn, is affected by the pH of body fluids; influences and
LIVINGSTON WK. RATIONALIZING THE SURGERY OF THE SYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM. JAMA. 1931;96(11):852–856. doi:10.1001/jama.1931.02720370030009
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