In his classic essay "An Introduction to the Study of Experimental Medicine," a volume recently made available in English translation, Claude Bernard6 proposed to prove that the science of vital phenomena must have the same foundations as the science of the phenomena of inorganic substances, and that there is no difference in this respect between the principles of biologic science and those of physicochemical science. Indeed, the goal which the experimental method sets itself is everywhere the same; it consists in connecting natural phenomena with their necessary conditions or with their immediate causes. In biology, since these conditions are known, physiologists can guide the manifestation of vital phenomena as physicists guide the natural phenomena, the laws of which they have discovered. The effort to test mechanistic, that is, physicochemical explanations of physiologic changes in the body is a tendency of the present day. One result has been to remove
ANALOGIES BETWEEN THE AQUEOUS HUMOR AND THE CEREBROSPINAL FLUID. JAMA. 1927;89(27):2265–2266. doi:10.1001/jama.1927.02690270031012
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