It is my purpose in this communication to discuss the physiologic and pathologic processes underlying the condition of "painful breasts," to emphasize their etiologic relationship to ovarian and other endocrine dysfunction, and to report the results of the treatment on this condition by means of ovarian residue.
At every menstrual period the mammary glands are stimulated by hormones that arise in the sexual glands and circulate in the blood, resulting in a transitory swelling of these organs. The stimulus affects both the epithelial and connective tissue elements of the breast. In many women the breast changes associated with menstruation pass unnoticed. Many others complain of pain and tenderness in one or both breasts, and at times moderate enlargement is observed. In extreme examples, actual secretion of a milky fluid from the nipples may occur. In typical examples the pain begins from ten to fifteen days before the menstrual period and
CUTLER M. THE CAUSE OF "PAINFUL BREASTS" AND TREATMENT BY MEANS OF OVARIAN RESIDUE. JAMA. 1931;96(15):1201–1205. doi:10.1001/jama.1931.02720410011004
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