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May 23, 1931

Über Homosexualität: Ein Beitrag zu einer medizinischen Anthropologie.

JAMA. 1931;96(21):1824-1825. doi:10.1001/jama.1931.02720470078042

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There are so many new ideas in this work that it is impossible to give them in detail here or to enter into a discussion concerning the author's theories of the various problems presented. He points out that the study of homosexuality has reached a dead point within the last five years, as there are two separate and in a way antagonistic conceptions of this condition: the constitutional or the endocrine theory, and the neurotic or psychoanalytic theory. Modern science demands a newer conception, which might be designated the morphology of human conduct. In this newer conception the facts should not merely be studied in an abstract theoretical form, as through physics, biology, psychology or even clinical medicine, but should be taken in their entirety, in their relationship to the entire human development—to a medical anthropology.

Looking at hermaphrodism from this standpoint, this condition appears rather late in the evolution

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