Shock is a type of peripheral circulatory failure which causes a profound disturbance in the physiologic mechanisms of the body and leads to a syndrome exhibiting, among its manifestations, hemoconcentration, oligemia and a generalized peripheral vasoconstriction. In these unparalleled times, when injuries resulting in shock are not limited to our armed forces in combat zones all over the globe but may also occur en masse in our civilian population as a result of air raids or industrial accidents, a thorough investigation and careful appraisal of some of the methods employed in the treatment of shock are most timely. In the treatment of shock the application of heat is too much stressed. The public, as well as the physician, uses heat in abundance in the treatment of shock from whatever cause. In first aid instructions one is taught to apply hot water bottles, hot bricks or heated stones to the extremities
WAKIM KG, GATCH WD. THE EFFECT OF EXTERNAL TEMPERATURE ON SHOCK: AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY. JAMA. 1943;121(12):903–907. doi:10.1001/jama.1943.02840120005002
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