With the introduction of sodium citrate as an anticoagulant by Lewisohn1 and the development of the modern technic of blood transfusion, this procedure became routine and easily performed. However, under the most careful conditions a small incidence of untoward reactions, principally chills and fever, has remained a disturbing factor. Untoward reactions of this kind may be divided into two groups: intrinsic reactions, arising from the infused blood, and extrinsic reactions, arising from causes other than the blood.
This paper deals with extrinsic reactions. It has been amply demonstrated that the febrile reaction is largely due to the inadvertent injection of foreign material into the blood stream.2 Many theories have been advanced in an attempt to explain the febrile reaction that is occasionally associated with the whole blood infusion and, for that matter, with intravenous infusions in general. Able investigators working along this line have shown that the reactions
NAFTULIN H, WOLF AM, LEVINSON SO. VISCOSE TUBING FOR TRANSFUSIONS: A REACTION REDUCING MATERIAL AND A SUBSTITUTE FOR RUBBER. JAMA. 1943;123(6):321–324. doi:10.1001/jama.1943.02840410003002
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