The importance of blood grouping, first demonstrated by Landsteiner, opened the way for transfusion as a safe therapeutic measure. By cross matching, the occasional reactions due to incompatibility of bloods were obviated.
The use of universal blood donors was first described by Ottenberg1 in 1911. Since then, especially because of objections raised by Coca,2 Hesse3 and others,4 the indiscriminate use of the universal donor has been condemned by many. The presence of agglutinins in a titer higher than 1: 16 is considered unsafe. The serum of the universal donor has an increased titer in 3 per cent of donors according to Coca and in a larger percentage according to Hesse (a titer of 1: 32 or over in 42 per cent against A cells and 32 per cent against B cells). The desire to curb the indiscriminate use of the universal donor has resulted in a
Litwins J. UNIVERSAL O BLOOD TRANSFUSION: COMBINATION OF POOLED PLASMA AND O CELLS. JAMA. 1943;123(10):630. doi:10.1001/jama.1943.82840450005007b
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