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February 26, 1944

INFLUENCE OF CONTINUOUS CAUDAL ANALGESIA AND ANESTHESIAON THE BLOOD LOSS DURING THE THIRD STAGE OF LABOR

JAMA. 1944;124(9):549-554. doi:10.1001/jama.1944.02850090005002
Abstract

From the dawn of medical history to the present day the handling of the third stage of labor has been an esoteric problem attested by the voluminous literature and the manifold methods that have been devised for the most beneficent results. A few of these stratagems will serve to refresh the memory and generate smiles of sympathy in compliment to the infinite ingenuity of our forebears. Methods1 adhered to by the ancients consisted in pulling on the umbilical cord, pressing on the belly, giving emetics, tickling the nose to provoke sneezing, encouraging the woman to blow hard into a gourd, bottle or closed fist, and removing the placenta by hand from the uterus or vagina. Then came the idea of moderate cord traction plus fundal pressure; in 1767 John Harvie of the Rotunda Hospital, Dublin, Ireland, proffered a scheme in which he advised guarding the uterus for fifteen to

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