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Global Health
January 16, 2018

Combination Strategy Associated With Reduced HIV Incidence in Uganda

JAMA. 2018;319(3):219. doi:10.1001/jama.2017.21296

The incidence of HIV infection declined with a 2-pronged prevention strategy that combined male circumcision and antiretroviral therapy (ART), report a team of international researchers in the New England Journal of Medicine.

The researchers analyzed the association between HIV incidence and the scale-up of ART and medical circumcision in Rakai, Uganda, which began in earnest around 2005. The Rakai Community Cohort Study (RCCS) included persons 15 to 49 years of age in Uganda’s rural Rakai District, which was 1 of the earliest and worst-hit areas when the HIV pandemic emerged in the 1980s. The study collected data on 33 937 participants in 30 RCCS communities using 12 surveys from April 1999 through September 2016—before, during, and after the start of the ongoing HIV prevention program funded by the President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief set up in 2004.