In Reply The letters by Dr Ludwig and colleagues and Drs Bero and Grundy offer an opportunity to discuss potential trade-offs and clarify potential misunderstandings regarding our proposal.
Greater transparency and a broader definition of disclosure-worthy information in nutrition are both essential, given the unique barriers to knowledge that threaten specifically nutrition science.1 Most effect sizes for nutritional risk factors and nutrition-related interventions are tiny. Confounding is influential, and diet is measured with notoriously faulty memory-based assessments. Much of nutrition science may be a null field with few true discoveries among endless analyses and claims.2 Average effect sizes may sometimes just reflect average bias.
Ioannidis JPA, Trepanowski JF. Conflict of Interest in Nutrition Research—Reply. JAMA. 2018;320(1):94–95. doi:10.1001/jama.2018.5678
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