Biomedical research includes studies from the molecular level through population health and generates a wide range of data. To attain deeper insights into disease mechanisms, appropriate informatics approaches are needed to analyze these data at each level from small molecules to individuals and the entire population (Figure 1). For example, chemoinformatics approaches are needed to analyze drug structure data and their therapeutic effects. Bioinformatics approaches are needed to analyze cellular and subcellular data and elucidate gene regulation. Imaging informatics are needed to gain diagnostic and prognostic insights into disease characteristics. The components of biomedical research, cross-scale data, and informatics constitute data science.
Zhu L, Zheng WJ. Informatics, Data Science, and Artificial Intelligence. JAMA. 2018;320(11):1103–1104. doi:10.1001/jama.2018.8211
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