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September 23, 1944


JAMA. 1944;126(4):225-231. doi:10.1001/jama.1944.02850390023007

The early twentieth century witnessed the ascendancy of the therapeutic nihilism of Osier. It had been preceded and influenced by a structural concept of disease derived from the precise pathologic investigations of Virchow. These autopsy studies had stressed abnormal cellular findings and centered the activity of medical students in the morgue.

The rebellion from the concept that disease is a fixed pathologic state was led by the modern psychologists. Their investigations of the psyche emphasized the role of the personality in the expression of disease. It is largely the result of these studies that has terminated the independent development of internal medicine and clinical psychiatry. No longer should a patient be treated only in terms of his specific complaints. A careful survey is made of the sick man from the standpoint of his personality as well as his organic disturbances. This new approach, which has as its basis the recognition

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