Cervical lacerations, because of their frequency and the morbidity to which they give rise, deserve, I believe, more serious consideration than they generally receive. Of 100 women delivered through the birth canal, eightysix showed unmistakable evidence of injury to the cervix. This statement is based on the study of 500 consecutive deliveries, with the idea of discovering the types and extent of such injuries and the possible influences that bring them about.
For convenience, these lacerations may be divided according to their extent. First degree is used to designate those involving the mucosa only; second degree those involving the body of the cervix, and third degree those extending beyond the cervix into the vaginal vault and broad ligament. The second degree may be divided further into moderate and extensive lacerations. While the stellate lacerations occur occasionally, they are comparatively rare. A more common involvement is a splitting of the anterior
WILLIAMS NH. CERVICAL INJURY AND ITS REPAIR. JAMA. 1929;93(14):1040–1043. doi:10.1001/jama.1929.02710140006002
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