In broaching the subject of malignant neoplasms of the lower esophagus and upper third of the stomach, I shall have to touch also on the topic of cardiospasm (malignant and benign) as a side issue; for, as is well known, dysphagia, the most prominent symptom of cardiospasm is also constantly encountered in esophageal neoplasms, and frequently in cancer of the upper third of the stomach. These conditions are intimately associated, and a recognition of the right ailment is essential for correct treatment. I have looked over the list of my private patients of the last three years (1926, 1927 and 1928) and find that there were altogether forty-four cases of cancer of the lower third of the esophagus, forty cases of cancer of the upper third of the stomach, and seventy-eight cases of benign cardiospasm.
The diagnosis of esophageal cancer is usually easy. There is present a gradually increasing dysphagia
EINHORN M. CARCINOMA OF THE LOWER ESOPHAGUS AND UPPER THIRD OF THE STOMACH. JAMA. 1929;93(17):1279–1282. doi:10.1001/jama.1929.02710170011004
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