Is there an association between prescription of a renin-angiotensin system (RAS) inhibitor at the time of hospital discharge after transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) and subsequent mortality or readmission for heart failure?
In this registry-based retrospective cohort study that included 15 896 propensity-matched patients who underwent TAVR, receiving a prescription for a RAS inhibitor at hospital discharge vs no prescription was associated with a risk for mortality of 12.5% vs 14.9%, respectively, and a risk for heart failure readmission of 12.0% vs 13.8%; both differences were statistically significant.
Use of a RAS inhibitor after TAVR may be associated with lower mortality and risk for heart failure readmission, but the potential for selection bias requires further investigation.
Data are lacking on the effect of a renin-angiotensin system (RAS) inhibitor prescribed after transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR). Treatment with a RAS inhibitor may reverse left ventricular remodeling and improve function.
To investigate the association of prescription of a RAS inhibitor and outcomes after TAVR.
Design, Setting, and Participants
Retrospective cohort study of TAVR procedures performed in the United States (using the Society of Thoracic Surgeons/American College of Cardiology Transcatheter Valve Therapies Registry) between July 2014 and January 2016 that were linked to Medicare claims data (final date of follow-up: March 31, 2017). To account for differences in demographics, echocardiographic findings, and in-hospital complications, 1:1 propensity matching was performed.
Initial hospital discharge prescription of a RAS inhibitor after TAVR.
Main Outcomes and Measures
Primary outcomes were all-cause death and readmission due to heart failure at 1 year after discharge, which were considered separately. The secondary outcome was health status assessed by the Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire (KCCQ; score range: 0-100, with a higher score indicating less symptom burden and better quality of life; a small effect size was defined as 5 points) at 1 year.
Among 21 312 patients who underwent TAVR at 417 US sites, 8468 patients (39.7%) were prescribed a RAS inhibitor at hospital discharge. After propensity matching, 15 896 patients were included (mean [SD] age, 82.4 [6.8] years; 48.1% were women; mean [SD] left ventricular ejection fraction [LVEF], 51.9% [11.5%]). Patients with a prescription for a RAS inhibitor vs those with no prescription had lower mortality rates at 1 year (12.5% vs 14.9%, respectively; absolute risk difference [ARD], −2.4% [95% CI, −3.5% to −1.4%]; hazard ratio [HR], 0.82 [95% CI, 0.76 to 0.90]) and lower heart failure readmission rates at 1 year (12.0% vs 13.8%; ARD, −1.8% [95% CI, −2.8% to −0.7%]; HR, 0.86 [95% CI, 0.79 to 0.95]). When stratified by LVEF, having a prescription for a RAS inhibitor vs no prescription was associated with lower 1-year mortality among patients with preserved LVEF (11.1% vs 13.9%, respectively; ARD, −2.81% [95% CI, −3.95% to −1.67%]; HR, 0.78 [95% CI, 0.71 to 0.86]), but not among those with reduced LVEF (18.8% vs 19.5%; ARD, −0.68% [95% CI, −3.52% to 2.20%]; HR, 0.95 [95% CI, 0.81 to 1.12]) (P = .04 for interaction). Of 15 896 matched patients, 4837 (30.4%) were included in the KCCQ score analysis and improvements at 1 year were greater in patients with a prescription for a RAS inhibitor vs those with no prescription (median, 33.3 [interquartile range, 14.2 to 51.0] vs 31.3 [interquartile range, 13.5 to 51.1], respectively; difference in improvement, 2.10 [95% CI, 0.10 to 4.06]; P < .001), but the effect size was not clinically meaningful.
Conclusions and Relevance
Among patients who underwent TAVR, receiving a prescription for a RAS inhibitor at hospital discharge compared with no prescription was significantly associated with a lower risk of mortality and heart failure readmission. However, due to potential selection bias, this finding requires further investigation in randomized trials.
Inohara T, Manandhar P, Kosinski AS, et al. Association of Renin-Angiotensin Inhibitor Treatment With Mortality and Heart Failure Readmission in Patients With Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement. JAMA. 2018;320(21):2231–2241. doi:10.1001/jama.2018.18077
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