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March 24, 1945

SANITARY DANGERS OF CROSS CONNECTIONS IN PLUMBING

JAMA. 1945;127(12):712-713. doi:10.1001/jama.1945.02860120028009
Abstract

Sanitary engineering practice has recognized for many years the hazards attached to the current operation of public water supply systems. The design and construction of an integrated public water supply system guarantee only the essentials of good hydraulic and sanitary practice. After the completion of the system, however, many problems arise because of the nature of the liquid handled and of the physical laws governing its distribution. The system operates under varying conditions of starting and stopping and with thousands of exposures through plumbing installations attached for maximum public, private and industrial uses. These innumerable outlets and interconnections are essential not only for potable water use but for many of the sanitary equipments operated in a water carriage system. No matter how well conceived a water supply system may be, physical relation to nonpotable liquids may result from many of the uses in a modern community. Control of these many

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