A recent paper by Horsley1 on the value of biologic principles in surgical practice concluded with these words:
“Real progress in surgery lies not so much in cultivating the art of surgery and in striving after mechanical dexterity, which is important but can be acquired in a few years, as in the study of biologic principles that concern function, nutrition, metabolism, and repair of tissues, and in the thoughtful application of these principles to every operation and to every method of surgical treatment.”
Science and Surgery. JAMA. 2019;321(20):2037. doi:10.1001/jama.2018.15352
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